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Excellent Academic Writers opic: Discussion 4 Principles of Test Development – Bias Response Order Description Please respond to peers paper with one new comment According to the Princeton Review (2003) there are five elements that make a test good. They are: that the test should measure what it purports to measure, it is unbiased, it is fair with open and reasonable policies, it promotes good education and that test preparation should be stress relieving. Carry out an extensive search on the topic of bias in educational testing and write a summary discussing the issue of bias, citing the types of bias reported in the literature. What are some recommendations made in dealing with bias. Does the literature discuss bias in nursing education testing?. Make it interesting and thought provoking for your colleagues. Here is one site you may want to take a look at. www.fairtest.org/facts/genderbias.htm Peers Paper It is critical for educators to ensure that tests are fair and equitable. There are a variety of factors that can influence test fairness. Miller, Linn, & Gronlund (2013) define a fair test as one that is absent of biases, provide an opportunity to learn, and contains an equality of results. The focus of this paper will be on gender, cultural & language, and racial biases in educational testing and suggestions for narrowing or decreasing these biases. Gender bias refers to the differences between male and female students on tests. Fairtest (2007) suggests that although female students tend to score higher grades in high school and college than their male counterparts, they actually score lower on the SATs and other standardized tests. On the SATs, blank questions are given 0 points and wrong answers deduct only ¼ of a point so the gender gap may be related to answer-guessing as male student are more likely to guess an answer when unsure while females tend not to answer the question unless they are confident about an answer (Fairtest, 2007). If this is true, the point variation between leaving questions blank and choosing the wrong answer can be one reason why females score lower. Additionally, it was found that females tend to answer questions about humanities, aesthetics, and relationships better than males while males are better at questions related to business, politics, and physical sciences (Fairtest, 2007). Perhaps test makers need to increase a focus on actual question content to ensure that subjects are evenly distributed throughout the test. Recommendations for closing the gender gap include involvement from parents, teachers, and school leaders. Bromley (2015) suggests that parents should be giving equal encouragement and support to sons and daughters and that schools should offer programs to help parents gain strategies on how to remain involved in the students’ learning process in the home. Teachers need to be aware of their own gender biases and put them aside in the classroom and should encourage study groups, tutoring, and/or mentoring while school leaders should focus on incorporating initiatives for all varieties of students into the curriculum design (Bromley, 2015). If parents, teachers, and school leaders collaborate, there can be a significant impact on the issue of gender gap in education. Along with gender biases on educational tests, cultural and language biases occur as well. Sosa (2012) defines cultural bias as “a situation in which a given test is inappropriate for a certain audience as it does not test the student’s actual knowledge of a taught subject or includes details tied to a culture that the student is unfamiliar with”. In other words, tests that incorporate cultural questions may be difficult for students who are unaccustomed with a culture that is not their own. Whiting & Ford (2009) provide an example of a test question about how soccer and football are alike but this can be problematic for a student who is unfamiliar with either of these sports. Educators and test makers need to assess whom the test takers may be and carefully review test questions for biases. Some recommendations to help culturally diverse students with testing includes educators offering non-verbal testing, using non-standardized tests, translating tests to students’ primary language, or the use of interpreters if necessary (Sosa, 2012; Whiting & Ford, 2009). If educators are finding that many culturally diverse students are struggling on exams, they need to review tests for biases and amend them or report them to appropriate officials. According to Rooks (2012), white and Asian students score higher on standardized tests than black and Latino students and that some schools expect a higher percentage of white and Asian students to do better than black or Latino students. Schools need to be aware of any racial biases and should have equal expectations across all races. There are many reasons that could cause discrepancies in test scores among racial groups. Jaschik (2010) suggests that black students may trail in test scores due to economic disadvantages and are less likely to attend well-financed, generously staffed schools. Factors to be considered are teacher to student ratios, the school environment, and focus on the curriculum in schools as these can have a significant influence on student performance. As mentioned above, perhaps educators and administrators need to shift their attention from emphasizing standardized tests to focusing on the students’ overall performance.]]>

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