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Creating efficiency and reducing errors in clinical laboratory testing The research problem Custom Essay

Creating efficiency and reducing errors in clinical laboratory testing The research problem Custom Essay 1. What affect does standardized process have? 2. Are all departments outside the lab trained in procedures for drawing samples and ordering tests? 3. Pre analytical process 4. Process improvement • Document must be typed, double-spaced on 8.5″ x 11″ paper with 1″ margins on all sides. Use a clear, highly readable font. APA recommends using 12 pt. Times New Roman font. • All chapters or appendices should start at the top of a new page. • There should be NO extra blank lines between paragraphs or sub-headers. Indentation is used to help the reader know when a break is occurring. DO NOT include extra blank lines in the body of the proposal or final research report. • Include a page header (also known as the “running head”) at the top of every page. To create a page header/running head, insert page numbers flush right. Then type “TITLE OF YOUR PAPER” in the header flush left using all capital letters. The running head is a shortened version of your paper’s title and cannot exceed 50 characters including spacing and punctuation. • • Do NOT include an executive summary (or an abstract) in your proposal. The executive summary is the last section added after the entire research report is completed. • ? _When citing references, you should carefully review the APA guidance. You should NEVER have a “dangling citation” – they must always be included inside of punctuation marks. So you would never say: “Research has found that many leaders do not understand the elements of transformational leadership. (Kessler, 2000)” To properly cite this should you would use one of two formats: Kessler (2000) found that many leaders do not understand the elements of transformational leadership.” Alternatively you could use this format: “Research has found that many leaders do not understand the elements of transformational leadership (Kessler, 2000).” The important point to remember is that you will NEVER have citations located outside of punctuation marks between sentences. Refer to the APA formatting sources on the Internet to better understand how to cite various sources including those from the Internet, those without an author, those without a date, and so forth. • When you are citing a direct quotation from a particular source (enclosed in parentheses) you must also include the page number(s) for that quotation. • ? _APA Style uses a unique headings system to separate and classify paper sections. There are 5 heading levels in APA. The 6th edition of the APA manual revises and simplifies previous heading guidelines. Regardless of the number of levels, always use the headings in order, beginning with level 1. Chapter 1: Problem Definition Background Add sufficient information in this section to explain the context for the research problem. The content in this section will vary depending on the research topic. Sufficient detail must be included to convince the reader that the topic represents a significant issue worthy of research resources. For example, the background might describe the nature of the issue/problem and provide a brief chronology regarding how long it has been an issue. Major events and milestones might be described and facts presented about how the problem situation evolved. Explain what factors are relevant to the problem and the current circumstances that have contributed to it. Discuss the impact that the problem is having on the ability of organizations to accomplish their mission and do so efficiently. Provide sufficient information to adequately set the stage for the research. Research Problem Begin this section with a few opening sentences that transition from the background information to the research issue. Keep in mind that you cannot have one-sentence paragraphs, (does not meet the definition of a paragraph) or one-paragraph sub-sections Clearly and concisely state the problem that you are examining as part of this research project. It often is useful to state the problem as a question. For example, the research might ask: “Is the policy that requires appointees to disclose their tax information and other potential conflicts of interest fair and reasonable?” Another example might be: “What sanctions should be imposed when employees use work resources for personal business without appropriate authorization?” The key in this section is to establish the research framework that will be used to examine literature and, in some cases (but not this semester) collect original data related to the research problem. That framework is important because it provides focus for subsequent chapters and also sets the stage for concluding the research effort by using the literature and data to answer the research questions. Once the research question has been developed it must be de-composed it into smaller sub-elements. This is very important as it will help later when determining what data must be collected to answer the primary research question. Structure the sub-questions as a series of bullet items. The sub-questions must all relate to the primary research question. Research Objective Identify the intended audience for this report (You are conducting administrative research. Your primary audience must be specific) and those to whom you will address your recommendations. Indicate if the audience is just a single person, several persons, or a combination of groups and individuals. Include a paragraph to convince management or other stakeholders that this study is important and worth the expense. Describe the anticipated benefits that will be derived from the project, after recommendations are implemented. Convince the reader that this issue, if not addressed, can threaten the very survival of the organization. Scope/Delimitations This is a very important section yet many students have difficulty understanding what should be included. In preceding sections the research problem(s) and objective(s) described the topic will be researched and identified the research audience. Chapter 2: Review of the Related Literature Introduction to the Literature It is useful to have a smooth transition paragraph at the beginning of each chapter. Transition narrative typically explains the purpose of this chapter and provides a brief overview of the contents that are included. For the literature review you might state that extensive literature exists about the research issue and that the literature has been organized, in this chapter, into sub-topics that best illuminate the research questions. Briefly mention the topics and why they are best suited for the presentation of a synthesis of the literature. Presentation of the Literature Literature sub-title . Replace the preceding and all subsequent sub-titles with meaningful sub-titles that reflect the contents of that particular sub-section. Use information from various literature articles to write a synthesis of major points from those articles. In particular, success depends on how well key points are extracted from the literature that directly relate to and support the research questions posed in Chapter 1. Ensure that the amount of literature available about the topic is described and summarize the major “threads,” or lines of reasoning. Use APA Style to cite all references. There should be citations on every page for the rest of this chapter. Summary of the Literature Sometimes students write summaries they are not particularly useful – there are just a few sentences repeating the purpose of a literature review rather than substantive content. This summary however is very important. Carefully extract the key facts cited in the preceding pages and link them to the research sub-questions presented in Chapter 1. The entire purpose of Chapter 2 is to locate and review “related studies” and to extract facts from those studies that help answer the research questions. That is the primary purpose of conducting a literature review. Use these final paragraphs to summarize the extent of the literature and major points from the literature that support, aide, or refute the research problem and sub-problems. This summary is important because it will be used l ater when the final research report is written as evidence for the final research conclusions and recommendations. Chapter 3: Research Methodology Research Approach It is useful to have a smooth transition paragraph at the beginning of each chapter. This is especially true in Chapter 3, because of the length of the literature review. Readers often need to be reminded of the research issue. Include an introductory paragraph and then get down to business. Keep in mind that researchers are not permitted to use personal pronouns at any location in the proposal or final research report. So instead of writing “I will …..” the narrative must say “This research will ….” Include an explanation of the approach (program evaluation, program design, feasibility study/business plan, cost-benefit analysis, and so forth) you plan to use for this research project. Why are you using this approach? Also discuss, at a high level, the general data collection approach that you plan to use and the rationale for using it: survey, interviews, existing data, or a combination of these approaches. Data Collection Approach and Procedures Data to be collected. This is a very difficult section for students to write. Most immediately start writing about surveys and interviews in this section, but that describes “how” the data will be collected, which is what is done in the next section, not this one. Before we describe how the data will be collected we must describe “what” data we need to collect. A common approach is to simply copy the research questions and sub-questions from Chapter 1 to this location and then to move to the next section, but that is not correct. In order to correctly write this sub-section, students must first look carefully at the research questions and sub-questions Primary research question and sub-question data details After reviewing the primary question each sub-question must be analyzed and defined in terms of the associated data. The first sub-question examines how the course is designed and taught. It is necessary to refine what is meant by the terms “designed” and “taught.” Data to be collected for this sub-question might include: length of course, amount of instructor-student contact time, whether course is structured or unstructured, and so forth. In examining how the course was taught, data might include whether it was face-to-face or online, whether the instructor effectively communicated requirements, if there was sufficient faculty-student interaction and so forth. The second sub-question focuses on work-related factors and to some extent was broken down in the details of the sub-question: workload, overtime, travel, or other work-related factors. Any other work-related obstacles such as military operations-tempo and so forth should be identified. Similarly, the third sub-question was refined within the question itself: marital status, number of children, family extracurricular activities, family illnesses or other family factors. If other factors should be analyzed such as support at home, they should be identified here. The fourth sub-question is inwardly focused and deals with personal motivation. The data might include: personal motivation, attentiveness or procrastination. It might be expanded by collecting data about work and personal habits such as being punctual, importance of completing tasks on time, and so forth. What has to be done in this sub-section is to take the research questions and “look under the hood” to figure out what data must be collected to answer the questions. Note that at no point were survey or interview, target population, survey procedures discussed. That comes in the next section titled “Data Collection Procedures.” Data collection procedures. A great deal of information must be communicated in this sub-section. Start by indicating how data will be collected. There are three primary data collection methods: survey, interview (phone, face-to-face and/or group), and existing records study. Target Population. The target population must be described in detail. Recall that the target population was first introduced in Chapter 1 Scope/Delimitations. At this point the target population for the study should be repeated. The size must be estimated and stated in numeric term Sample Details. The next task in this sub-section is to describe the sample. This is very important. Instrumentation. All data collection instruments (surveys, interview questions, consent forms) must be included as appendixes. Procedures. Describe the research procedures in detail. Indicate if the survey will be anonymous or not. If the surveys are returned by e-mail they are not anonymous. Timing. State when the study will be started and when it will be completed. Indicate any potential extension timeframe in case response rates are below expectations. Proposed Approach for Data Analysis and Synthesis Describe the tools and techniques that will be used to analyze the data once it is collected, such as descriptive statistics, statistical models (e.g., t-test, correlation), decision tables and decision criteria, pro-forma accounting statements, cash flow and income statement, etc. Methodological Limitations]]>

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