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Breathing difficulties and cough are problems that are common in children

Breathing difficulties and cough are problems that are common in children Breathing difficulties and cough are problems that are common in children and the range of their causes can be a self-limited illness to severe life-threatening diseases. Wheezing can be viewed as a symptom of respiratory diseases that cause children to be increasingly uncomfortable. This paper will give a differential diagnosis for the case study of Marissa. Diagnosis Asthma – Shortness of breath or wheeze episodes that are recurrent. – Bronchodilators response. – Night cough or cough and wheeze with exercise – History of allergy or asthma that is known or in the family – Expiration that is prolonged – Air entry that is reduced Pneumonia – Fever – Fast breathing with cough – Grunting Cold – Wheeze always related to coughs and colds – Prolonged expiration – No family or personal history of asthma or hay-fever The steps that follow after diagnosis are: Asthma • If the child has a first episode of wheezing and no respiratory distress then it can be managed at home. Ensure child receives daily maintenance fluids appropriate for her age. • If there’s respiratory distress or recurrent wheezing, salbutamol metered-dose inhaler should be administered and child assessed after 15 minutes and if respiratory distress persists then the child should be admitted at the hospital to be treated with oxygen and other drugs (WHO, 2013). If the above therapy fails and the child does not respond or that her condition worsens, an x-ray should be obtained to look for evidence of pneumothorax (WHO, 2013). Pneumonia. • Admit child to hospital. • Ensure supply of oxygen is continuous. • Preferred method of oxygen delivery should be nasal prongs. • Each day oxygen should be removed for a trial period. • Give antibiotics therapy. • Ensure there’s regular supportive care. References. World Health Organization, 2013, Pocket Book of Hospital Care for Children: Guidelines for the Management of Common Childhood Illnesses. 2nd edition. Discussion Part Two (graded) Marissa has uncontrolled asthma. While her technique was not perfect an in-office spirometry revealed an FEV1 of 76% of predicted. You referred her to an allergy specialist to help identify potential triggers. You also initiated low-dose inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy using a spacer device at twice a day dosing. Give at least two examples of an ICS and “low dose” dosing based on the most recent NHLBI asthma guidelines.]]>

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